This article's version history on GitHub
Board farms are a black art. Every embedded developer has a custom setup pieced together over time. This series of posts on my own board farm hopes to document how I do things in a way that might be helpful to others.
In this post I explain my typical kernel development workflow and the role my board farm plays in it. A recurring theme is to provide a way to work with various boards in a consistent fashion. This increases efficiency while working and also helps the number of platforms scale up more easily. This post will probably be boring for seasoned embedded developers, while follow-up posts will hopefully be more interesting.
build, flash, boot, repeat
The basic workflow that I use for kernel development on embedded devices is to cross compile the kernel on my host (e.g. my PC) and then copy the new files over the network to my target (e.g. Pandaboard ES). After copying the new files I attempt to boot Linux and I use the serial console to observe my progress and interact with the system. I reboot the target when I am ready to do it all over again.
flashing software to the target
There are many ways to flash software to modern embedded targets. My preferred way to do this is to put the Das U-boot bootloader on the target’s SD card or NAND/NOR flash and then copy the kernel uImage and relevant Device Tree blobs over the network every time the device boots. I do this via a TFTP server running on my host.
Some targets will have an Ethernet port on the board. For SoCs with Ethernet controller this will require a driver for that Ethernet hardware in U-boot. For SoCs that do not have Ethernet controllers there is often a Ethernet-to-USB bridge (like on the Pandaboard ES). In this case the USB controller needs to have a driver in U-boot.
Finally some targets will not have an Ethernet port on the board. If your board has a USB port then you can purchase a cheap USB-to-Ethernet adapter. If you board has none of these options then you will need to investigate transferring data over the serial port or perhaps some vendor-specific method for flashing images. You should also skip the rest of this article, which assumes use of the network for tftpboot.
set up the tftp server on your host
Install the needed packages:
sudo apt-get install tftpd-hpa tftp sudo vim /etc/default/tftpd-hpa sudo chown $USER /var/lib/tftpboot/
The config file should look something like:
# /etc/default/tftpd-hpa TFTP_USERNAME="tftp" TFTP_DIRECTORY="/var/lib/tftpboot" TFTP_ADDRESS="[::]:69" TFTP_OPTIONS="--secure"
Test that you can fetch the images you need from your tftp server:
cd ~/my/kernel/directory/ cp arch/arm/boot/uImage arch/arm/boot/dts/omap4-panda-es.dtb /var/lib/tftpboot/ tftp tftp> connect localhost tftp> get uImage Received 5783727 bytes in 0.8 seconds tftp> get omap4-panda-es.dtb Received 49971 bytes in 0.0 seconds tftp> quit (or ctrl-d) ls -l uImage omap4-panda-es.dtb -rw-r--r-- 1 mturquette mturquette 49821 Jan 18 19:12 omap4-panda-es.dtb -rw-r--r-- 1 mturquette mturquette 5746120 Jan 18 19:12 uImage
If you were able to fetch the files from your tftp server into your working directory then you know the server works.
set up U-boot for tftp
The contents of my Pandboard ES SD card:
- MLO (signed first-stage bootloader)
- u-boot.img (note that this is not u-boot.bin)
Modern U-boot versions read uEnv.txt (if present) to load environment variables, which is a nice change from the old days. Here is what my uEnv.txt looks like on my Pandaboard ES:
fdt_high=0xffffffff bootcmd=usb start; dhcp 0x80200000 192.168.1.181:uImage; dhcp 0x815f0000 192.168.1.181:omap4-panda-es.dtb; bootm 0x80200000 - 0x815f0000 bootargs=console=ttyO2,115200n8 earlyprintk uenvcmd=boot
You can see from bootcmd that the Pandaboard ES uses a USB-to-Ethernet bridge (which is on-board, no need to purchase a seaparate dongle). Additionally I use the dhcp command to fetch the uImage and DTB since I do not assign a static IP address to the target.
Load up your SD card (or flash memory) with the bootloader images and your own uEnv.txt and you should be rewarded with a downloaded Linux kernel image and DTB that boots nicely.
a note on Gigabit Ethernet
Even recent versions of U-boot have trouble with USB timeouts when hooked up to a Gigabit switch. There is a patch on the Beagleboard lists, and some other discussion on the Denx lists. Recent versions of U-boot (2014.01) seems to solve this for me by increasing the timeout.
putting it all together
Now we can boot a kernel and DTB over the network. In practice I use an alias to build my kernel and another alias to copy files over to the tftp server directory:
alias m2='m 2> errors.err' alias c='cp arch/arm/boot/uImage arch/arm/boot/dts/omap4-panda-es.dtb /var/lib/tftpboot/ && sync'
So I build a kernel image, inspect any errors by running
errors.err and then copy the images over to the tftp root directory.
Rebooting the target loads these new images and runs them.
I dump errors from STDERR into errors.err during compilation because
this is a standard file that vim can use to jump from issue to issue.
vim -q will load up errors.err as the errfile and
you can jump from each error with
:cn and back with
I hope you found this helpful. The next installment will focus on how I control power cycling of my boards remotely, and how I take power measurements in my board farm.